53: Planning for a sustainable city

Pro­fes­sor Manuela Sechi­lar­iu, has been direc­tor of the UTC Avenues research unit since 2016. She is also Deputy Direc­tor of SEEDS, a CNRS research group (GDR) since 2018 and the ini­tia­tor and leader until 2018, with­in SEEDS, of the Micro-net­works Work­ing Group (MnWG) at the nation­al lev­el in France. 

Cre­at­ed in 2006, the UTC- Avenues Lab — depend­ing on the num­ber of doc­tor­al stu­dents and con­tract researchers — has near­ly 25 mem­bers. One of its par­tic­u­lar­i­ties? “It is inter­dis­ci­pli­nary team whose skills range from geography/geomatics to plan­ning and hydrol­o­gy, from mechan­i­cal engi­neer­ing to civ­il engi­neer­ing, or elec­tri­cal engineering”.

“We focus our research on urban sys­tems and, more specif­i­cal­ly, mul­ti-scale mod­el­ling of urban sys­tems. That is to say, start­ing from the build­ing, con­tin­u­ing through the neigh­bour­hood, then the city and final­ly the sur­rond­ing ter­ri­to­ry. The whole being in inter­ac­tion with the human res­i­dents who occu­py a cen­tral place”, explains Manuela Sechilariu. 

A par­tic­u­lar­i­ty that sheds light on Avenue’s work, com­bin­ing engi­neer­ing sci­ences with those of the human and social sci­ences, car­ried out by the research team. In short, a sys­temic inte­gra­tion of the var­i­ous dis­ci­pli­nary approach­es whose object of study is the urban sys­tem. What is the key objec­tive? “To study upstream urban sys­tems, con­sid­ered as com­plex dynam­ic sys­tems which form a sys­tem of sys­tems giv­en the mul­ti­tude of sub­sys­tems gen­er­at­ed. We are main­ly inter­est­ed in the urban dynam­ics gen­er­at­ed by the diver­si­ty of the sys­tems involved and the inter­ac­tion between these sys­tems and human actors”, she stress­es. Hence the impor­tance giv­en to mul­ti-scale mod­el­ling with­in Avenues around five themes. 

“These themes — micro net­works, trans­port, hydro­log­i­cal risk, dig­i­tal mod­els or urban plan­ning and poli­cies, for exam­ple — are by no means a cat­a­logue of sub­jects. Our research focus­es on the inter­re­la­tion­ship of each theme with the oth­ers and the pre­cise links between them, both at the lev­el of of a giv­en build­ing, dis­trict, town or ter­ri­to­ry. They also deal with their inter­ac­tion with con­tem­po­rary soci­etal ten­sions, such as the ener­gy tran­si­tion, the envi­ron­men­tal tran­si­tion, the dig­i­tal tran­si­tion and final­ly the urban tran­si­tion”, she says. 

Skills that are recog­nised at nation­al, Euro­pean and inter­na­tion­al lev­el. As proof? The projects under­way at the nation­al lev­el. “For exam­ple, I could men­tion Mobel_City, which we won in 2017 fol­low­ing a call for projects financed by ADEME and for which we are the coor­di­na­tors. It con­cerns the imple­men­ta­tion of smart micro-grids and urban imple­men­ta­tion for elec­tric mobil­i­ty in cities. A project that illus­trates both the skills accu­mu­lat­ed with­in the unit and the inter­dis­ci­pli­nar­i­ty that reigns there, since it is at the cross­roads of the fields of trans­port — elec­tric mobil­i­ty, renew­able ener­gies, urban plan­ning and sus­tain­able ter­ri­to­ry. We are sup­port­ed by an indus­tri­al part­ner, SYSTRA, who spe­cialise in trans­port issues on a nation­al scale, but also in the Com­piègne Agglom­er­a­tion (ARC)”, Manuela Sechi­lar­iu explains. But also inter­na­tion­al projects such as COST, a Euro­pean project, and, most recent­ly, the PVPS-T17¹ project ini­ti­at­ed by the Inter­na­tion­al Ener­gy Agency (IEA) on the pos­si­ble con­tri­bu­tions of pho­to­volta­ic tech­nolo­gies to transport. 

“COST, where UTC-Avenues is vice-pres­i­dent through its Chair of Intel­li­gent Mobil­i­ty and Ter­ri­to­r­i­al Dynam­ics, is a Euro­pean project that aims to study the impact of future autonomous and con­nect­ed vehi­cles on urban and peri-urban mobil­i­ty. With­in the frame­work of the PVPS pro­gramme, we are coor­di­na­tors, at the nation­al lev­el, of the PV2E_Mobility project, which rep­re­sents the French con­tri­bu­tion to “task 17”, while at the inter­na­tion­al lev­el, we are respon­si­ble for “sub-task 2”. PV2E_Mobility, a 4‑year project fund­ed by ADEME, focus­es on the use of pho­to­volta­ic ener­gy in trans­port. This may con­cern both on-board pho­to­volta­ic sources in vehi­cles and sta­tion­ary pho­to­volta­ic sources for recharg­ing vehi­cles. Here again, we have indus­tri­al part­ners such as Enedis, Tec­sol, SAP Lab, Poly­mage and the CEA. Sub­task 2″, which we coor­di­nate, con­cerns sta­tion­ary pho­to­volta­ic sources for recharg­ing elec­tric vehi­cles with part­ners such as Chi­na, Japan, South Korea, Aus­tralia, the Nether­lands, Spain, Aus­tria, Ger­many, etc.”

1 Pho­to­volta­ic Pow­er Sys­tems Programme

Trained as a geo­g­ra­ph­er, Nathalie Molines lec­tured at UTC since 2006. She works, with­in the UTC-Avenues research unit, on issues relat­ed to the sus­tain­able city and more par­tic­u­lar­ly on issues of deci­sion sup­port in ter­ri­to­r­i­al management.

Geo­g­ra­ph­er by train­ing Nathalie Molines added two strings to her bow dur­ing two post-docs: the first at the Fac­ul­ty of Forestry — Québec on “the con­tri­bu­tion of geo­mat­ics and car­to­graph­ic tools in deci­sion sup­port for the con­cert­ed man­age­ment of for­est her­itage”, the sec­ond at the Nantes School of Archi­tec­ture on “The con­tri­bu­tion of spa­tial analy­sis tools for the co-build­ing of sus­tain­able neigh­bour­hoods”. So, what is her inter­est in the issue of sus­tain­able cities? “This notion comes from the the­o­ries of sus­tain­able devel­op­ment put for­ward in the Brundt­land report¹, pub­lished in 1987. It states, among oth­er things, that “sus­tain­able devel­op­ment is a mode of devel­op­ment that meets the needs of present gen­er­a­tions with­out com­pro­mis­ing the abil­i­ty of future gen­er­a­tions to meet their own needs”. A mode of devel­op­ment that is based on three pil­lars. The eco­nom­ic pil­lar, the envi­ron­men­tal pil­lar and final­ly the social pil­lar. “This applies per­fect­ly to the con­cept of the sus­tain­able city in the sense that it is a ques­tion of find­ing the right bal­ance between the eco­nom­ic, envi­ron­men­tal and social aspects attached to an urban ter­ri­to­ry. But this bal­ance is dif­fi­cult to achieve and ter­ri­to­r­i­al deci­sion sup­port pro­vides deci­sion-mak­ers with the ele­ments to make informed choic­es,” she explains. 

Her main areas of research? “The first con­cerns the issues of reg­u­la­to­ry urban plan­ning and sus­tain­able cities. The sec­ond con­cerns the impacts of cli­mate change and the third, the issues relat­ed to the ener­gy tran­si­tion of the ter­ri­to­ries. The three are inter­linked,” she says. The first con­cerns the devel­op­ment of mod­els to eval­u­ate, upstream, the effec­tive­ness of a local urban devel­op­ment plan (PLU), a strate­gic doc­u­ment defin­ing ori­en­ta­tions on the evo­lu­tion cities over the next 10 to 15 years. A research theme that leads, among oth­er things, to prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tions. “For exam­ple, in the frame­work of a Cifre the­sis with the Toulouse Urban Area that I super­vised at the UTC, we start­ed from three main themes: urban den­si­ty, ameni­ties or lev­el of ser­vices offered on the ter­ri­to­ry and the aer­a­tion of plots. From there, we reviewed the reg­u­la­tions, in short what was autho­rised or not, in order to see if the project respond­ed to the issues defined upstream by the politi­cians “, assures Nathalie Molines.

A research axis that also trans­lates into aca­d­e­m­ic part­ner­ships. “I work with the Water and Envi­ron­ment Lab­o­ra­to­ry of the Gus­tave- Eif­fel Uni­ver­si­ty, which is a spe­cial­ist unit in the hydro­log­i­cal mod­el­ling of rain­wa­ter. The aim is to com­bine our two areas of exper­tise in order to ver­i­fy the extent to which urban plan­ning doc­u­ments make it pos­si­ble to imag­ine cities capa­ble of lim­it­ing the impacts of cli­mate change, in par­tic­u­lar rain­wa­ter man­age­ment by facil­i­tat­ing ground­wa­ter infil­tra­tion and reduc­ing the risk of flood­ing. A the­sis, co-direct­ed by our two lab­o­ra­to­ries and devot­ed to urban cli­mate, in par­tic­u­lar the lim­i­ta­tion of “hot spots” and rain­wa­ter infil­tra­tion, will be launched next autumn,” she points out. 

Are there projects on the impacts of cli­mate change? “A first project with the Water and Envi­ron­ment lab­o­ra­to­ry focused on the prospec­tive analy­sis, with a 20/30 year hori­zon, of how land use in the Lyon region, includ­ing urban sprawl, and how cli­mate change might impact the ter­ri­to­ries. We worked on dif­fer­ent sce­nar­ios inte­grat­ing both land use and cli­mate change hypothe­ses. Very recent­ly, we sub­mit­ted a project, as part of the State-Region plan con­tracts, which deals with the impacts of envi­ron­men­tal changes on air and water qual­i­ty as well as on health and bio­di­ver­si­ty in the region Hauts-de-France,” she explains.

The last axis relates to ener­gy tran­si­tion of the ter­ri­to­ries. “Using a spa­tial approach, I am work­ing both on elec­tric mobil­i­ty and on the ener­gy effi­cien­cy of build­ings. If we take, for exam­ple, the opti­mi­sa­tion of the instal­la­tion of recharg­ing sta­tions, this pre­sup­pos­es a detailed knowl­edge of uses and attrac­tor, high den­si­ty zones. In oth­er words, com­mer­cial areas, work areas or even liv­ing areas. Anoth­er aspect con­cerns the ener­gy of build­ings,” con­cludes Nathalie Molines. 

¹ Rap­port Brundtland

Justin Emery, has been lec­tur­ing on “spa­tial plan­ning and urban­ism” at UTC since 2019, and con­cur­rent­ly is a research-sci­en­tist at UTC-Avenues research unit.

Justin Emery — a geo­graphe by train­ingsees him­self as an “urban quan­ti­ta­tive geo­g­ra­ph­er”. His PhD the­sis was award­ed in 2016 are the Uni­ver­si­ty of Bour­gogne. The theme of the PhD? “I devel­oped a sim­u­la­tion mod­el for urban road traf­fic to bet­ter mea­sure auto­mo­tive air pol­lu­tion. A mod­el based on data, in par­tic­u­lar road counts at giv­en spot,” he explains.

Since then, he has been par­tic­u­lar­ly inter­est­ed in urban geog­ra­phy and the prob­lems of trans­port and mobil­i­ty, inte­grat­ing a quan­ti­ta­tive approach. “These are all the meth­ods that make it pos­si­ble to mea­sure the rela­tion­ship between human actors and the envi­ron­ment to the urban space in a “nor­ma­tive” way. This requires the use of data. In the case of my the­sis, for exam­ple, they were derived from road counts. In my cur­rent work, I some­times use sur­veys; oth­er times I use spa­tial data. For data analy­sis, I rely in par­tic­u­lar on geo-com­pu­ta­tion, i.e., the use of dig­i­tal tools in the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of space such as geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems (GIS) or mul­ti-agent sys­tems (MAS) or data pro­cess­ing tools,” he adds. 

His research focus­es there­fore on the transport/ envi­ron­ment duo. “I start­ed with the the­o­ret­i­cal frame­works of com­plex sys­tems via mul­ti-agent sim­u­la­tion. They have also been used, for the last ten years or so, in social sci­ences, where social sys­tems are analysed as com­plex sys­tems,” explains Justin Emery. 

What is meant by a com­plex sys­tem? “By anal­o­gy, the city func­tions de fac­to like an anthill. If you look at it, you realise that an ant on its own is not sig­nif­i­cant, but that all the ants togeth­er form a com­plex sys­tem, the anthill colony. The city is made up of inter­act­ing indi­vid­u­als who move around, who move between dif­fer­ent ameni­ties (home and work) and thus form an urban sys­tem. It is there­fore a ques­tion of includ­ing the city in its spa­tial dynam­ics, which means that the issue of trans­port and mobil­i­ty must be tak­en into account”, he stresses. 

One major axis of his research? “I am try­ing to deep­en the the­o­ret­i­cal frame­work of com­plex sys­tems for the study and visu­al­i­sa­tion of spa­tial dynam­ics, par­tic­u­lar­ly in the field of trans­port and road traf­fic. This frame­work is fun­da­men­tal­ly inter­dis­ci­pli­nary, since it is a ques­tion of artic­u­lat­ing the dif­fer­ent scales of the city, run­ning indi­vid­u­als to build­ings and infra­struc­tures and up to the city. In short, it is a mul­ti-scalar vision,” he says. 

A the­o­ret­i­cal frame­work that allows Justin Emery to test prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tions. “Using mod­el­ling approach­es, it is a ques­tion of test­ing oper­a­tional capac­i­ties and see­ing how they can help deci­sion­mak­ing on the scale of an urban space. In addi­tion to this, all the approach­es of ter­ri­to­ry sur­veys are being test­ed. The aim is to gain a bet­ter under­stand­ing of trans­port demand, then how trans­port func­tions and final­ly the fac­tors that influ­ence trans­port demand, such as the need to trav­el to work, for exam­ple. It is also about bet­ter under­stand­ing how these fac­tors influ­ence demand, how the ter­ri­to­ry func­tions. Espe­cial­ly since we know that a ter­ri­to­ry func­tions through mobil­i­ty and trans­port. How­ev­er, there is often a lack of “nor­ma­tive” data. Spe­cif­ic tools must there­fore be put in place and ad hoc sur­veys must be devel­oped to bet­ter under­stand how peo­ple move around. These sur­veys will enable the con­struc­tion of eval­u­a­tion tools adapt­ed to trans­port sys­tems and the move­ments of inhab­i­tants. We are thus mov­ing from a clas­sic log­ic of “first we build an infra­struc­ture and then we see if peo­ple use it” to a log­ic of “how to make mobil­i­ty as flu­id as pos­si­ble and adapt trans­port to mobil­i­ty”, he says.

It also applies this approach to the city/climate prob­lem. “Hav­ing worked with cli­ma­tol­o­gists dur­ing my doc­tor­ate, I had to use geo­graph­i­cal infor­ma­tion sys­tems, tools that enabled me to iden­ti­fy the link between urban lay­out, urban plan­ning and their impact on the envi­ron­ment. This is, for exam­ple, the case of the study of the urban heat island (hot-spots), or how urban form impacts heat in the city”, he concludes. 

Pro­fes­sor Manuela Sechi­lar­iu, has been direc­tor of the UTC Avenues research unit since 2016. She is a spe­cial­ist in one of the flag­ships themes of the lab­o­ra­to­ry, viz., elec­tric micro-net­works and ener­gy management.

What exact­ly is a micro-net­work? “An elec­tric micro-grid is made up of a set of ener­gy sources, both renew­able and tra­di­tion­al sources for the local sup­ply of loads, such as build­ings or elec­tric vehi­cles. Thus, con­cern­ing renew­ables, this rais­es the ques­tion of the inter­mit­tent nature of this form of ener­gy and there­fore its stor­age and/or con­nec­tion to the pub­lic grid,” she explains.

What is the key idea in micro-net­works? “It is a ques­tion, through micro-grids, of inte­grat­ing renew­able ener­gies as best pos­si­ble, as quick­ly as pos­si­ble and on a mas­sive scale with the help of local reg­u­la­tion in order to relieve the net­work from its reg­u­la­tion at the nation­al lev­el and to main­tain the bal­ance between pro­duc­tion and con­sump­tion”, she emphasises. 

How do smart-grids or smart grids work? “Let’s take the French nation­al elec­tric­i­ty grid, for exam­ple. If we super­im­pose on this net­work com­mu­ni­ca­tion means and mes­sage trans­mis­sion that allow us to man­age, in real time, the bal­ance between pro­duc­tion and con­sump­tion, then we can speak of a “smart­grid”. The infor­ma­tion exchanged in real time between the pro­duc­er and the con­sumer on the one hand and the con­sumer, who can also be a “con­so-actor”, i.e., an ener­gy pro­duc­er, and the pro­duc­er on the oth­er hand, helps to opti­mise ener­gy man­age­ment for net­work oper­a­tors of the trans­mis­sion grid and also at local dis­tri­b­u­tion net­work lev­el », details Manuela Sechi­lar­iu. What are the objec­tives of these micronet­works? “First­ly, we seek to opti­mise the use of the var­i­ous sources, includ­ing stor­age, and sec­ond­ly, to be able to sup­ply loads — build­ings and vehi­cles, for exam­ple — as effi­cient­ly as pos­si­ble. All this at the low­est pos­si­ble ener­gy cost. This implies being able to increase the share of renew­ables con­sumed while min­imis­ing the neg­a­tive impact on the nation­al grid. These objec­tives are achieved thanks to algo­rithms that allow con­sump­tion opti­mi­sa­tion by tak­ing into account pro­duc­tion and con­sump­tion fore­casts at time t. Algo­rithms capa­ble of analysing data from the smart grid, data from the var­i­ous play­ers and final­ly meta­da­ta such as weath­er data, for exam­ple,” she says.

Sev­er­al hur­dles still need to be passed. “The first con­cerns the con­trol of uncer­tain­ties that relate to the con­trol of pro­duc­tion, for exam­ple, since renew­able sources are, by nature, depen­dent on the weath­er, or those sur­round­ing the lev­el of con­sump­tion. The sec­ond, tech­no­log­i­cal hur­dle, relates to com­mu­ni­cat­ing inter­faces at var­i­ous scales, since an intel­li­gent net­work inte­grat­ed into a build­ing must nec­es­sar­i­ly com­mu­ni­cate with the pub­lic net­work but also, in the case of an elec­tric vehi­cle recharg­ing instal­la­tion, with the dri­vers in order to opti­mise the oper­a­tion of the elec­tric pow­er sup­ply sta­tion. Final­ly, the last point con­cerns social accept­abil­i­ty. This is a pri­mor­dial con­di­tion to be able to devel­op ser­vices that are sub­se­quent­ly used by users”, explains Manuela Sechilariu. 

Micro-net­works which, as we can see, inter­act strong­ly with the theme of mobil­i­ty, but also with the theme of reg­u­la­to­ry rel­e­vance and urban pol­i­cy. “The instal­la­tion of pho­to­volta­ic sources such as micro-grids or stor­age must there­fore be con­sis­tent with the plan­ning of a dis­trict, a city or a ter­ri­to­ry. We are deal­ing with issues that con­cern build­ings and ter­ri­to­ry with pos­i­tive ener­gy bills”, she specifies. 

Some con­crete appli­ca­tions? “Let’s take the recharg­ing and “dis­charg­ing” sta­tions for vehi­cles that offer new ser­vices such as “Vehi­cle to Grid”. In par­tic­u­lar, this may involve a vehi­cle con­nect­ed to its charg­ing sta­tion to charge its bat­tery and which, at a giv­en moment decid­ed by the pub­lic net­work oper­a­tors in agree­ment with the car own­er, will dis­charge its bat­tery to the net­work to com­pen­sate for a peak in con­sump­tion. The ener­gy accu­mu­lat­ed in all the elec­tric vehi­cles in a ter­ri­to­ry could thus, dur­ing a peak, pre­vent oper­a­tors from hav­ing to resort to start­ing up a ther­mal pow­er plant, for exam­ple,” she concludes. 

Nas­si­ma Voyneau has been a lec­tur­er at UTC since 2005, and is a spe­cial­ist in hydro­log­i­cal risks at the UTC-Avenues research unit.

What are hydro­log­i­cal risks? “These are all the nat­ur­al risks relat­ed to water. These are, for exam­ple, floods, tor­ren­tial rain, ris­ing water tables or avalanch­es. I am main­ly inter­est­ed in mod­el­ling floods due to rain, ris­ing rivers or ris­ing sea lev­els. This requires knowl­edge of the func­tion­ing of the water cycle in order to mod­el it, but also knowl­edge of sta­tis­tics and prob­a­bil­i­ties. In fact, as soon as we are inter­est­ed in the risk, we have to inte­grate the prob­a­bil­i­ty that this risk will or will not occur,” she explains.

Her spe­cif­ic research field? “I’m very inter­est­ed in the urban envi­ron­ment, because that’s where the vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty of a ter­ri­to­ry lies. In the past, urban plan­ning was essen­tial­ly based on aes­thet­ic and func­tion­al cri­te­ria. Today, we are try­ing to inte­grate envi­ron­men­tal cri­te­ria into urban plan­ning upstream, for exam­ple: tak­ing into account the flood risk and the means of “min­imis­ing” it,” she stresses. 

Among the tools used? “Mod­el­ling enables a hydro­log­i­cal phe­nom­e­non to be under­stood and sim­u­lat­ed using math­e­mat­i­cal equa­tions. In the case of flood risks, for exam­ple, it is based on his­tor­i­cal rain­fall and flow rate data. This allows us to cre­ate hydro-mete­o­ro­log­i­cal sce­nar­ios and to see the impact of each sce­nario on the ter­ri­to­ry con­cerned. It also allows us to make long-term pro­jec­tions. Final­ly, flood mod­el­ling enables us to under­stand how the ter­ri­to­ry func­tions in rela­tion to this risk and to build solu­tions to pro­tect. Thus, if we take a dis­as­ter sce­nario, in hydrom­e­te­o­ro­log­i­cal terms, we will be able, among oth­er things, to analyse its impact on the road net­work or eval­u­ate opti­mal routes for the deliv­ery of relief sup­plies… In short, it’s a ques­tion of pre­vent­ing the risk in order to bet­ter man­age it,” explains Nas­si­ma Voyneau. 

An exam­ple of recent research work? “A the­sis, pre­sent­ed in Decem­ber 2019, which I cosu­per­vised with Philippe Ser­gent du Cere­ma. It deals with the mod­el­ling of flood risk in the city of Le Havre. With one par­tic­u­lar­i­ty: it involved mod­el­ling floods gen­er­at­ed by the con­junc­tion of two phe­nom­e­na. Name­ly the rise in sea lev­el com­bined with heavy rain­fall. The uncer­tain­ties linked to cli­mate change have also been tak­en into account,” she explains. 

Some con­crete projects? “As part of the Sao Polo project, car­ried out in part­ner­ship with oth­er lab­o­ra­to­ries (CETMEF, EDF, Uni­ver­si­ty of Le Havre, etc.), we have worked in par­tic­u­lar on the adap­ta­tion of coastal cities, includ­ing Bor­deaux, Le Havre and Saint-Malo, to flood­ing. The ques­tions at stake are: should this adap­ta­tion be car­ried out by rais­ing the exist­ing dikes or by remov­ing hous­es from the shore line, for exam­ple? Of course, as each city has its own char­ac­ter­is­tics, the sce­nar­ios cre­at­ed are dif­fer­ent and the solu­tions pro­posed are dif­fer­en­ti­at­ed. We have also worked on a CIFRE the­sis with the RATP, on the mod­el­ling of the risk of see­ing the Paris Métro net­work flood­ed, as hap­pened in 1910. It was nec­es­sary to iden­ti­fy the areas impact­ed, the sta­tions and lines that would need to be to be closed, etc.”, she explains. 

It is clear that the theme of flood­ing is strong­ly con­nect­ed with the theme of urban devel­op­ment. “We know that urban­i­sa­tion will impact the water cycle by reduc­ing the infil­tra­tion capac­i­ty of the soil by “bitu­mis­ing” it. This cre­ates abun­dant sur­face runoff and favours flood­ing. Today, both plan­ners and pub­lic author­i­ties pre­fer to inte­grate the risk upstream, as ear­ly as the design phase of an urban devel­op­ment project, so as to pro­pose devel­op­ments that do not mod­i­fy the water cycle. This is known as ‘man­ag­ing rain­fall at source’. Thus, we see the appear­ance of some engi­neer­ing offices that do not pro­pose solu­tions to fight against floods but urban devel­op­ments that inte­grate infil­tra­tion zones. These offer two advan­tages: they feed the water table while reduc­ing sur­face runoff, which often caus­es flood­ing,” she concludes 

Le magazine

Avril 2024 - N°62

Faire face aux enjeux environnementaux

linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram